On 24 November 2015, the Russian Supreme Court issued clarifications devoted to the application of laws regulating labour of sportsmen and coaches. The Court discussed complex issues that lower courts come across when considering disputes involving sportsmen and coaches. In particular, the Court confirmed that individual labour disputes are subject to resolution by state courts of ordinary jurisdiction. However, where disputes have arisen out of a civil condition contained in an employment agreement, such disputes can be referred to specialized arbitration institutions (e.g. Sports Arbitration Tribunal at the RF Chamber of Commerce and Industry), if so agreed between the parties. The Court also pointed out that courts may apply rules adopted by All-Russian Sports Federations.